via HinduBusinessLine: ‘Agriculture dependent population in India grew by 50% during 1980-2011’’

‘Agriculture dependent population in India grew by 50% during 1980-2011’’

According to a report of the Worldwatch Institute, the economically active agricultural populations of China and India grew by 33 and 50 per cent respectively due to overall population growth.
According to a report of the Worldwatch Institute, the economically active agricultural populations of China and India grew by 33 and 50 per cent respectively due to overall population growth.

The agricultural population of India grew by a whopping 50 per cent between 1980 and 2011, the highest for any country during this period, followed by China with 33 per cent, while that of the US dropped by 37 per cent as a result of large-scale mechanisation, a latest report has said.

“Between 1980 and 2011, the economically active agricultural populations of China and India grew by 33 and 50 per cent respectively due to overall population growth,” the Worldwatch Institute said in a report.

“The economically active agricultural population of the US, on the other hand, declined by 37 per cent as a result of large-scale mechanisation, improved crop varieties, fertilisers, pesticides, and federal subsidies —all of which contributed to economies of scale and consolidation in US agriculture,” it said.

The global agricultural population — defined as individuals dependent on agriculture, hunting, fishing, and forestry for their livelihood — accounted for over 37 per cent of the world’s population in 2011, the most recent year for which data is available.

This is a decrease of 12 per cent from 1980, when the world’s agricultural and non-agricultural populations were roughly the same size.

Although the agricultural population shrank as a share of the total population between 1980 and 2011, it grew numerically from 2.2 billion to 2.6 billion people during this period, writes Worldwatch Senior Fellow Sophie Wenzlau in the Institute’s latest Vital Signs Online trend.

According to the report, between 1980 and 2011, Africa’s agricultural population grew by 63 per cent, and its non-agricultural population grew by 221 per cent.

Oceania’s agricultural population grew by 49 per cent, and its non-agricultural population grew by 65 per cent.

Asia’s agricultural population grew by 20 per cent, and its non-agricultural population grew by 134 per cent, it said.

The combination of movement to cities and agricultural consolidation caused agricultural populations to decline in Europe and the Americas between 1980 and 2011: by 66 per cent in Europe, 45 per cent in North America, 35 per cent in South America, 13 per cent in Central America, and 7 per cent in the Caribbean, the report added.

(This article was published on February 27, 2014)

Map via WashingtonPost: Where long-term Unemployment is at Historic Highs

Where long-term unemployment is at historic highs

Before the recession smashed the record, long-term unemployment peaked at 26 percent thirty years ago. But in 2013 it was higher than that in 41 states and D.C. It’s highest in D.C., New Jersey and Florida, where more than 45 percent of the jobless are long-term unemployed (i.e. unable to find work after about six months of looking).

Map via WashingtonPost: Where the Millionaires Are

Where the Millionaires Are

Per capita millionaire households (Source: Phoenix Global Wealth Monitor)

More than six million households in the United States have liquid assets worth more than $1 million, according to new estimates that show the greatest concentrations of wealth in the United States are along the Interstate 95 corridor. (Click through for an interactive map.)

MAP via WashingtonPost: Who’s most well off

Who’s most well off

Gallup's well-being index.

Gallup’s well-being index.

Gallup’s well-being index relies on 55 metrics, including rates of obesity, produce consumption, smoking, depression and psychological fulfillment. Generally, the best-off states are in the Midwest and West while the worst are in the south. And there was quite a bit of a shakeup last year. Nineteenth-ranked North Dakota rose to the top spot, while 12th-ranked South Dakota took the second spot. After four years on top, Hawaii fell to the eighth spot. Read more at Gallup.

via Pew Research: Remittance Flows Worldwide in 2012

Remittance Flows Worldwide in 2012

U.S. top sending country; India top receiving country

Click above for full interactive

Remittance U.S. 2012

“Remittances” are funds or other assets sent to their home countries by migrants, either themselves or in the form of compensation for border, short-term and seasonal employees (World Bank, 2013). Total remittances received by a country, as reported by the World Bank, include remittances sent via formal channels, such as banks and other businesses that transfer money. Data in this interactive are provided by the World Bank and follow World Bank definitions adopted from the International Monetary Fund nations (World Bank, 2013). If unofficial remittances were counted, the total could be as much as 50% higher or more, according to household surveys and other evidence cited by the World Bank (World Bank, 2005). Remittance data are provided by the World Bank and follow World Bank definitions adopted from the International Monetary Fund (World Bank, 2013). Remittance flows presented in this map are based in part on World Bank estimates derived from a statistical model, and therefore are subject to some error. For more information, see (Ratha and Shaw, 2007) Incoming remittance flows from specific countries might not add to the total due to World Bank being unable to identify the source of some of the remittance inflows.

Source: World Bank 2012 Bilateral Remittance Matrix.

via Reuters: U.N. Sounds Alarm on Worsening Global Income Disparities

U.N. sounds alarm on worsening global income disparities


UNITED NATIONS Wed Jan 29, 2014 11:50am EST

Helen Clark, head of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), speaks during a news conference after launching a report on ''Water Governance in the Arab Region'' in Manama November 28, 2013 file photo. REUTERS/Hamad I Mohammed

Helen Clark, head of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), speaks during a news conference after launching a report on ”Water Governance in the Arab Region” in Manama November 28, 2013 file photo.


(Reuters) – The U.N. Development Program warned in a report on Wednesday that income disparities in countries around the world have been worsening, posing new risks for global economic and political stability.

The UNDP warning echoes remarks from U.S. President Barack Obama in his annual State of the Union address on Tuesday, in which he said there was a widening gap between rich and poor in the world’s biggest economy and that while the stock market has soared, average U.S. wages have barely budged.

The UNDP report said income inequality increased by 11 percent in developing countries over the two decades between 1990 and 2010. The majority of households in developing countries — more than 75 percent of those nations’ populations — are living today in societies where income is more unequally distributed than it was in the 1990s, the report said.

 The UNDP says this is a global trend that, if left unchecked, could have dire consequences since it “can undermine the very foundations of development and social and domestic peace.”

The widening income gap comes as some major developing countries – such as China andIndia – have seen strong economic growth and an overall increase in national wealth. But that wealth has not been evenly distributed, which has contributed to greater inequality in those societies.

“The sharpest increases in income inequality have occurred in those developing countries that were especially successful in pursuing vigorous growth and managed, as a result, to graduate into higher income brackets,” the UNDP report said.

“Economic progress in these countries has not alleviated disparities, but rather exacerbated them,” it said.

In an interview with Reuters, UNDP chief Helen Clark made clear that this negative trend is reversible and that one of the key components is creating quality employment opportunities.

“The key thing is the focus on jobs – jobs, jobs, jobs,” Clark said, adding that it was important for governments to pay attention to ways of improving the skills of its labor force.

She also touched on the subject of the widening income disparities in countries like Chinaand India, which have seen significant levels of economic growth in recent decades.

“It’s the nature of the growth,” she said. “If it’s uneven growth … it does create tensions within society because people can see that others are doing much better than them.”

“The China example shows that you get fast growth and poverty reduction, but you also get the growing inequalities,” Clark said. “And this is of concern to China’s leadership.”

The report said there was evidence that increases in inequality over the last two decades were mainly due to trade and financial globalization processes that weakened the bargaining position of labor.

Clark said one of the problems with globalization is that it “has proceeded in a very deregulated world.” She advocates more regulation of international trade and financial flows but without eliminating risk and the ability of companies to generate profits.

“It’s a balance,” she said. “You have to leave room for risk.”

(Reporting by Louis Charbonneau, editing by Tom Brown)

via ‘I used to live here’: Saginaw’s Steep Population Drop hits Neighborhoods

Keyterms: Population Geography, urbanization, deindustrialization, out-migration, white-flight, redlining, push factors, Urban Geography, Economic Geography, Development, Blight, Industry, Manufacturing, secondary economic activity.

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‘I used to live here’: Saginaw’s steep population drop hits neighborhoods

By Mark Tower |

on January 26, 2014 at 7:00 AM, updated January 26, 2014 at 11:17 AM

SAGINAW, MI — Former Saginaw City Manager Darnell Earley often said his job was one of “managing decline.”

In just five decades, the city’s population dropped from nearly 100,000 in the 1960s to fewer than 52,000 by the 2010 census. To say it another way, Saginaw lost 48 percent of its residents during the last 50 years.

The reasons for the decline are many, and the impact of the outbound migration is still felt today.

This week, The Saginaw News takes a look at those trends through the eyes of those who once lived in the city, and some who still do today. The series of reports titled “I used to live here” talks to citizens about what they’ve witnessed during the past few decades in the neighborhoods they’ve called home.

Among their stories:

  • Betty Van Ochten tells how her North Side neighborhood disappeared under the asphalt of a new, wider Washington Avenue.
  • Donald and Barbara Anderson reflect on 42 years of living in the city they call home.
  • Linda Parent tells about her childhood in a neighborhood near the old Saginaw County Fairgrounds.
  • Former Midland residents Beau and Teagan Carnes reflect on their first five years living in Saginaw’s Houghton-Jones neighborhood.
  • Eddie Byas discusses how he hardly recognizes the Buena Vista Township home where he raised his family.

Experts also weigh in on what happened and what the future may hold for the city as it reshapes itself for the new century.

‘It’s not just a Saginaw thing’

Long before Saginaw’s decline came a period of unfettered growth, from a city of about 50,000 people in 1910 to its population height in 1960. In 1968, Saginaw was one of the 10 cities chosen as an “All-America City” by the National Civic League.

Former Saginaw mayor and history buff Greg Branch said similar growth was seen across the nation.

-6e02b6be34b2da6b.jpgFormer Saginaw Mayor Greg Branch

“The American population grew at a very high rate during that time period,” Branch said. “It was the growth of manufacturing, particularly automotive and its spinoffs. There were a number of different factors, but the main one for Saginaw was that GM had jobs here.”

Evelyn Ravuri, a professor of geography at Saginaw Valley State University, specializes in a field called “population geography,” which focuses on the distribution, composition, migration and growth of populations.

Ravuri said Saginaw’s more recent population decline, like its growth, is by no means unique to this city.

“It wasn’t so much people running away as it was they had tremendous incentives to move away.” -Former Mayor Greg Branch

“In the 1970s and ’80s, we start to see a decline in manufacturing, and those jobs start to trickle out of the state,” she said. “And then the supporting industries start to go also. So you start seeing a decline in the population.”

Ravuri said a migration also took place from metropolitan areas across the nation: A departure of baby boomers from cities and into surrounding suburbs.

“This is not just a Saginaw thing,” she said. “That’s been going on for several decades.”

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 1950, 61 percent of the residents in Saginaw County lived in cities, with about 39 percent in townships and villages.

Sixty years later, the opposite is true.

While 29 percent of Saginaw County residents still lived in cities in 2010, the vast majority (71 percent) live in outlying townships and villages. Cities in Saginaw County are the cities of Saginaw, Frankenmuth and Zilwaukee.

“Population spread” into outlying areas hit places like Saginaw harder than large metropolitan areas, such as Boston and San Francisco, because of the availability of undeveloped rural land close to Saginaw’s city center, Ravuri explained.

“Once people started to move out to the suburbs in the 1950s, by the 1960s the malls were moving out, the doctors’ offices were moving out and the educational institutions were moving out,” she said. “It’s no surprise, when you can move out into the suburbs and have everything you need.”

Branch said federal housing policy encouraged the shift the to the suburbs in the 1950s and ’60s, often referred to as “white flight.”

“It wasn’t so much people running away as it was they had tremendous incentives to move away,” Branch said.

He explained that the now-illegal process of “redlining” certain neighborhoods to discourage investment was, at the time, both legal and commonplace. At the same time, Branch said, attractive loans were available to some who were interested in moving into the suburban developments popping up outside city limits.

Saginaw’s struggles

The start of the departure of residents from Saginaw, Branch said, can be blamed on those incentives, coupled with racial tensions reaching a crescendo in the 1960s and the bisection of Saginaw by the construction of Interstate 675.

“You have this huge swath of land cutting right through the main part of the city,” Branch said.

“My dad’s stepmother, my grandfather’s widow, lived in a house on North Michigan in the last block before Weiss. The berm for 675 is where their yard was. They bought her house, and what did she do? She moved out to the township. And a lot of people did that.

“That project alone is probably responsible for the loss of several thousand homeowners.”

Saginaw city township populations
While the city of Saginaw’s population has plummeted since 1960. During the same period, the population of neighboring Saginaw Township has doubled.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau 

Construction of the nearly 8-mile-long interstate business route began in 1969 and it was opened to traffic in 1971.

Branch also acknowledged the city’s failure to annex portions of the surrounding townships as the population spread. The city sold those areas its water.

“I would say that was the biggest mistake that we made,” Branch said. “That suburban growth was on the back of our water system.”

The problem eventually began to snowball, depressing real estate values and causing more residents to leave, Branch said.

“And right on the heels of that, you have the Arab oil crisis, the rise of the Japanese auto industry and, really, the beginning of the loss of GM jobs,” he said. “It’s kind of like you had all these different things coming together.”

Saginaw County’s countywide population grew steadily to a height of 228,000 in 1980 and has since seen a trickle of decline. The county population in 2010 was about 200,000.

At the same time that the city of Saginaw rapidly lost residents, many of the surrounding townships were growing.

Saginaw Township expanded from a population of just under 6,000 in 1950 to 40,840 in 2010. That means the township now has only about less 10,000 residents than the city.

Thomas Township has also seen huge growth in the last 60 years, from a population under 3,000 to one of nearly 12,000. Tittabawassee Township has grown from a population of nearly 2,400 in 1950 to nearly 10,000 residents at the time of the last census.

Bridgeport Township has nearly doubled in size since 1950, from about 5,500 to about 10,000.

Saginaw population shift
The above charts show the dramatic shift in the concentration of city dwellers versus people living in outlying townships and villages in Saginaw County in 1950 and 2010.Source: U.S. Census Bureau

The migration from city to suburbs has had financial consequences for Saginaw, including significant implications on the city’s ability to provide services and maintain infrastructure.

The total assessed value of the city’s taxable property has fallen from nearly $760 million in 2002 to about $610 million in 2011, roughly a 20 percent decrease.

Saginaw’s city government has downsized, staffing 345 full-time and 88 part-time positions in the current fiscal year. Five years ago, the city had 466 full-time workers.

New reasons for hope

But it’s not all bad news for a city full of people with a passion for their hometown and its rich heritage as both an important supplier of lumber and as an industrial and manufacturing hub.

michigan rib overview
Festival goers at the Michigan Rock ‘n Rib Fest in 2013 at FirstMerit Bank Event Park in Saginaw.

Unlike many Midwest cities that invested heavily in the automotive industry, Saginaw’s city government has not yet approached the edge of bankruptcy. Though Saginaw’s expenses are rising and its savings dwindling, city leaders still make final administrative and budgetary decisions, unlike its neighbors along the Interstate 75 corridor that are run by a state-appointed emergency manager.

With a brand new outdoor event venue built in downtown Saginaw in 2013, new residential housing being developed in the city and the prospect of a Central Michigan University Medical School campus on both sides of the Saginaw River opening in 2015, many watching the news are hopeful a new era of growth lies ahead.

Ravuri said that some experts are predicting a revival of metropolitan areas, though she pointed out that it’s unclear if that growth trend might appear in Saginaw.

“It really depends on what those baby boomers are going to do,” she said. “They could delay it if they continue to move out into suburbs. But if they decide to move back into cities, you’ll see it going a lot faster.”

Demolition of the house at 3145 S. Washington in Saginaw
A crew from Rohde Brothers Excavating tears down a house at 3145 S. Washington in Saginaw, Dec. 11, 2013.

City and county leaders are attempting to make room for potential growth and to stabilize remaining neighborhoods. Hundreds of vacant, blighted properties dot Saginaw. Thanks to $11.2 million in federal grant dollars secured in 2013, officials plan to demolish about 950 of the empty, dilapidated homes.

That amounts to about 5 percent of all of the houses in Saginaw. City officials estimate there are another 1,000 blighted homes that still should be demolished.

The homes were once in tightly knit neighborhoods, say people from all walks of life who claim Saginaw as their hometown. Read some of their stories this week in the series “I used to live here.”

  • Follow along and jump into the conversation yourself on Twitter using the hashtag #iusedtolivehere.

Use our searchable database below to explore information on the county-owned properties already slated for demolition as part of the federal grant. Crews have already begun demolishing some of the 413 publicly-owned properties in the database and hope to acquire another 500-some privately-owned empty, blighted homes to demolish.

The plan is to clear all 950 properties by the spring or summer of 2015.

Link to the story.

via CNN: How does your Salary Compare to Others?

This widget sheds light on the UNEVEN DEVELOPMENT that exists across the globe. ECONOMIC INEQUITY is but one of the economic indicators that illustrates the DEVELOPMENT GAP. With little EXPENDABLE INCOME, less developed and developing countries do not draw in the QUATERNARY service sector that more developed countries do.

-The Human Imprint

Screen Shot 2014-01-27 at 1.19.30 PM

“Data has been sourced from the International Labour Organization, the U.S. CEO earnings figure was sourced from theBureau of Labor Statistics and the Queen’s income from The Sovereign Grant. *$PPP wages calculate the buying power of what you earn, inside your country, relative to someone in the U.S. Find out more about how this interactive was calculatedhere. **Iraq and Timor-Leste are net.”