via PewResearch: Global Population Estimates by Age, 1950-2050-INTERACTIVE

JANUARY 30, 2014

Global Population Estimates by Age, 1950-2050

Pew Global Population Interactive

The demographic future for the U.S. and the world looks very different than the recent past. Growth from 1950 to 2010 was rapid—the global population nearly tripled, and the U.S. population doubled. However, population growth from 2010 to 2050 is projected to be significantly slower and is expected to tilt strongly to the oldest age groups, both globally and in the U.S.

Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, World Population Prospects: 2012 Revision, June 2013

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via the Guardian: Time running out for China’s one-child policy after three decades

Time running out for China’s one-child policy after three decades

As list of exemptions grows, experts predict scrapping of rule said to have prevented 400m birthsChina baby
Even if the one-child policy is scrapped, many Chinese couples say they are unlikely to have bigger families because of the expense. Photograph: Afp/AFP/Getty Images

Chen Xi once saw the one-child policy as a brick wall, unyielding and inevitable. Now she considers it a nuisance.

The turning point came in November when, just as she began the fifth month of her pregnancy, Beijing announced a big change to the contentious policy, allowing couples to have two children if one parent is an only child. Chen, a 28-year-old employee at a state-owned enterprise, should qualify – her husband does have siblings, but she does not.

Yet her hopes may be dashed: although she is pregnant with her first child, she lives with her husband’s 16-year-old daughter from a previous marriage, and family planning officials may consider the teenager her own.

As Chen fruitlessly searched the internet for details, her emotions turned from hope, to confusion, to anger – first at the lack of information, then at the policy as a whole. “This policy has so many downsides – it violates natural law, it makes kids spoilt and thankless,” she said. “Sooner or later, they’re going to have to give it up. It’s really just a matter of time.”

Chen is not alone. While experts doubt the relaxation will deliver a baby boom, they say it has delivered something else entirely: a paradigm shift for many Chinese people who, over three decades, have grown numb to the government’s role in their reproductive affairs.

The policy’s pitfalls are common knowledge: it has engendered an economically perilous demographic crunch and human rights abuses such as forced late-term abortions, abducted infants and the use of violence to collect fines.

Yet “resistance against the policy has never really been that strong”, said Wang Feng, an expert on China’s demographics at the University of California, Irvine. “That’s why I think this top-down change – when the government says ‘now the policy has outlived its use and needs to be changed’ – that actually triggers a change in thinking.”

Five years ago, Wang estimated, only three out of 10 Chinese people were adamant that the policy should be scrapped. “Now, with the announcement of this change, it may not be an exaggeration to see a shift to the other way around. Maybe nine out of 10 would say it’s about time to get rid of this.”

Last week, the wealthy coastal province of Zhejiang became the first to sign the revision into law. Hubei in central China and Guangxi in the south could follow suit by March, state media say.

Authorities say the policy has prevented 400m births since its implementation in the late 1970s. For evidence, they often point to UN estimates that the country’s birthrate has dropped from 4.77 births per woman in the 1970s to 1.64 in 2011. Yet experts have called the figure into question. China’s greatest fertility drop-off occurred in the decade before the policy was introduced, they say; its continuing decline mirrors that of other developing nations.

China already allows many people to have two children, such as couples who are both only children, and ethnic minorities.

Yet many of these families refrain, unwilling to bear the economic cost of a second child. Since the early 1990s, “there’s been no tightening up of the policy, but the fertility rate continues to decline”, said Zuo Xuejin, an executive vice-president at the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences. “So the basic driver for declined fertility is socioeconomic change.”

If China’s demographic trends hold, the country will probably scrap the policy by 2020, according to Zuo. “By 2025, the government will be encouraging people to have more children.”

Yet the policy will almost certainly continue to have a hold on people for years, experts say, for reasons that have little to do with demographics. For leading officials, backtracking on a three-decade-old policy would entail an intolerable loss of face. The country’s sprawling family planning bureaucracy, which levies more than £1bn annually in fines, is too deeply entrenched to suddenly dismantle.

“At the same time as China announces this policy change, it says the government will continue to put population control as its main mission,” said Cai Yong, a sociology professor at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. “You see a contradiction right there.”

Chen is still waiting for details on her eligibility, and probably won’t find answers until Beijing formally legislates. She badly wants a second child, unlike many of her colleagues. “If my child doesn’t have any siblings, she’ll grow up very lonely,” she said. If she finds out it is illegal, she will book a flight to the US and hopefully give birth there, granting her child foreign citizenship.

“Before, most people would go to Canada, but some policies changed, so people don’t go there any more,” she said. “Going to America is really popular. If that’s what it takes, that’s what I’ll do.”

via APA: UN: There are 232 million international migrants worldwide

Years later, we still see evidence that Earnst Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration are still at work.
-The Human Imprint
▇ ▅ █ ▅ ▇ ▂ ▃ ▁ ▁ ▅ ▃ ▅ ▅ ▄ ▅ ▇
Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration
  1. Most migrants move only a short distance.
  2. There is a process of absorption, whereby people immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force [pull factors] is spent.
  3. There is a process of dispersion, which is the inverse of absorption.
  4. Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow.
  5. Long-distance migrants go to one of the great centers of commerce and industry.
  6. Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural areas.
  7. Females are more migratory than males over short distances; likewise males are more migratory than females over longer distances.
  8. Economic factors are the main cause of migration.
▇ ▅ █ ▅ ▇ ▂ ▃ ▁ ▁ ▅ ▃ ▅ ▅ ▄ ▅ ▇
 [ 15 February 2014 18:49 ]

Baku. Shamil Alibayli – APA. A new report launched today by the United Nations spotlights the significant impact of young migrants on origin, transit and destination countries and communities, as well as the challenges they face, as told in their own voices.
APA reports quoting UN website that according to the latest UN estimates, there are 232 million international migrants worldwide, representing 3.2 per cent of the world’s total population of 7.2 billion.

There are 35 million global migrants under the age of 20, up from 31 million in 2000, and another 40 million between the ages of 20 and 29. Together, they account for more than 30 per cent of all migrants. Females account for approximately half of all global youth migrants.

Published by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), the latest World Youth Report outlines the global situation of young migrants by highlighting some of the concerns, challenges and successes experienced by young migrants.

“Recognizing the diversity of youth migrants is important for understanding the impact of migration on the human development of young men and women as well as on their countries of origin and destination,” states the report.

“It is also essential for designing specific interventions that address their unique vulnerabilities and enable them to realize their hopes and aspirations.”

According to the report, the impacts of youth migration are mixed. When young people migrate, they tend to improve both their own financial situation and the economic circumstances of their families through the income they earn and the remittances they send home, while destination countries benefit from greater economic efficiency.

However, countries of origin can suffer from negative impacts of human capital flight, or brain drain, notably of health and education professionals, the report states.

It goes on to say that the process of migration itself brings different challenges and experiences and can affect overall outcomes for young people. Prior to migration, young people may be excited at the prospect of leaving home and discovering a new place, while they also face challenges.

via Reuters: U.N. Sounds Alarm on Worsening Global Income Disparities

U.N. sounds alarm on worsening global income disparities

BY LOUIS CHARBONNEAU

UNITED NATIONS Wed Jan 29, 2014 11:50am EST

Helen Clark, head of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), speaks during a news conference after launching a report on ''Water Governance in the Arab Region'' in Manama November 28, 2013 file photo. REUTERS/Hamad I Mohammed

Helen Clark, head of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), speaks during a news conference after launching a report on ”Water Governance in the Arab Region” in Manama November 28, 2013 file photo.

CREDIT: REUTERS/HAMAD I MOHAMMED

(Reuters) – The U.N. Development Program warned in a report on Wednesday that income disparities in countries around the world have been worsening, posing new risks for global economic and political stability.

The UNDP warning echoes remarks from U.S. President Barack Obama in his annual State of the Union address on Tuesday, in which he said there was a widening gap between rich and poor in the world’s biggest economy and that while the stock market has soared, average U.S. wages have barely budged.

The UNDP report said income inequality increased by 11 percent in developing countries over the two decades between 1990 and 2010. The majority of households in developing countries — more than 75 percent of those nations’ populations — are living today in societies where income is more unequally distributed than it was in the 1990s, the report said.

 The UNDP says this is a global trend that, if left unchecked, could have dire consequences since it “can undermine the very foundations of development and social and domestic peace.”

The widening income gap comes as some major developing countries – such as China andIndia – have seen strong economic growth and an overall increase in national wealth. But that wealth has not been evenly distributed, which has contributed to greater inequality in those societies.

“The sharpest increases in income inequality have occurred in those developing countries that were especially successful in pursuing vigorous growth and managed, as a result, to graduate into higher income brackets,” the UNDP report said.

“Economic progress in these countries has not alleviated disparities, but rather exacerbated them,” it said.

In an interview with Reuters, UNDP chief Helen Clark made clear that this negative trend is reversible and that one of the key components is creating quality employment opportunities.

“The key thing is the focus on jobs – jobs, jobs, jobs,” Clark said, adding that it was important for governments to pay attention to ways of improving the skills of its labor force.

She also touched on the subject of the widening income disparities in countries like Chinaand India, which have seen significant levels of economic growth in recent decades.

“It’s the nature of the growth,” she said. “If it’s uneven growth … it does create tensions within society because people can see that others are doing much better than them.”

“The China example shows that you get fast growth and poverty reduction, but you also get the growing inequalities,” Clark said. “And this is of concern to China’s leadership.”

The report said there was evidence that increases in inequality over the last two decades were mainly due to trade and financial globalization processes that weakened the bargaining position of labor.

Clark said one of the problems with globalization is that it “has proceeded in a very deregulated world.” She advocates more regulation of international trade and financial flows but without eliminating risk and the ability of companies to generate profits.

“It’s a balance,” she said. “You have to leave room for risk.”

(Reporting by Louis Charbonneau, editing by Tom Brown)

Geography Related iPad Apps for the Student and Teacher

As I continue to expand my iPad classroom, I am discovering a bunch of content specific apps for geography that will be great to use both in and out of the classroom. Here is a list of the ones I have accumulated on my iPad thus far:

  • CNN: A must for news.
  • TED: A must for inspiration
  • Discovery Education: A must for short clips and full length videos that provide a wide range of topics
  • Google Earth: A must for…Duh…
  • ArcGIS: A must for showing image overlays and from the GIS pros. This is great for helping to show the power of GIS.
  • QuakeFeed: An app that shows recent seismic activity all over the world using maps and a Richter Scale.
  • Living Earth: An app that shows the World Time and Weather patterns on a moving 3D Earth.
  • Wolfram Geography: Wolfram has always been great with providing statistics and fast, but this one is tailored just for geography. Topics range from Physical geography, geology and climate, political geography, demographics, economics, and social statistics. I’m not going to lie, it’s pretty awesome.
  • UNHCR Refugee: An app that places the user in a refugee’s shoes and has them make difficult decisions that refugees often face. It is somewhat like a “choose-your-own-adventure” style, but I don’t know if that is quite appropriate given the content. Perhaps “choose-your-own-scenario” sounds better.
  • UN Country Stats: This app is great because like Wolfram, it allows the user to access data on a ton of indicators, provided by the United Nations, and with the ability to select multiple countries to compare the statistics for up to three countries.
  • Fodor’s City Guides: An app that kids can use to explore a particular city around the World from a traveler’s standpoint.
  • ESRI Place History: This app I picked up at the AP conference. You enter the places that you live and frequent on a daily basis. ESRI then plots the toxic hazards near those locations and users can see choropleth maps of heart disease and cancer occurrences in those areas. Kind of scary actually.
  • ESRI BAO: Enter an address in this app and find out social data such as type of neighborhood, population size, median age, avg. household income, % college educated, unemployment rate, household size, % home owners, avg. retail, restaurant, and entertainment spending per month. (Of the United States of course).
  • Earth Viewer: Describes the eras and eons of the World’s history. As you move the slider across time, you can see how the Earth take formation on a 3D globe.
  • UN AIDS: Maps HIV/AIDS information as accumulated from the United Nations. Other data that can correlate to the disease are also listed (life expectancy, HDI).
  • GeoBee Challenge: The official National Geographic Geo-Bee app. (Just for fun)
  • TapQuiz Maps: Another app that tests the user’s ability to identify a location on a map. (Just for fun)
  • Acing AP Human Geography: Looks like a student’s programming class project, and is limited with vocabulary and models. If anyone out there can best it, I recommend giving it a go.
  • Geo Quiz HD: A game that tests your ability to guess locations, capitals, languages, and flags in a multiple choice format.
  • GeoTest: I love this game! It gives you a random location in the World, and using what I assume is Google Earth Streetview, you have to move around and guess on a map where in the World you are.  A great idea for a geo game!